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env_var

The env_var function can be used to incorporate Environment Variables from the system into your dbt project. This env_var function can be used in your profiles.yml file, the dbt_project.yml file, the sources.yml file, your schema.yml files, and in model .sql files. Essentially env_var is available anywhere dbt processes jinja code.

When used in a profiles.yml file (to avoid putting credentials on a server), it can be used like this:

profiles.yml
profile:
target: prod
outputs:
prod:
type: postgres
host: 127.0.0.1
# IMPORTANT: Make sure to quote the entire Jinja string here
user: "{{ env_var('DBT_USER') }}"
password: "{{ env_var('DBT_PASSWORD') }}"
....

If the DBT_USER and DBT_PASSWORD environment variables are present when dbt is invoked, then these variables will be pulled into the profile as expected. If any environment variables are not set, then dbt will raise a compilation error.

Quoting, Curly Brackets, & You

Be sure to quote the entire jinja string (as shown above), or else the yaml parser will be confused by the Jinja curly brackets.

env_var accepts a second, optional argument for default value, like so:

dbt_project.yml
...
models:
jaffle_shop:
+materialized: "{{ env_var('DBT_MATERIALIZATION', 'view') }}"

This can be useful to avoid compilation errors when the environment variable isn't available.

Secrets

Changelog

For certain configurations, you can use "secret" env vars. Any env var named with the prefix DBT_ENV_SECRET_ will be:

  • Available for use in profiles.yml + packages.yml, via the same env_var() function
  • Disallowed everywhere else, including dbt_project.yml and model SQL, to prevent accidentally writing these secret values to the data warehouse or metadata artifacts
  • Scrubbed from dbt logs and replaced with *****, any time its value appears in those logs (even if the env var was not called directly)

The primary use case of secret env vars is git access tokens for private packages.

Note: When dbt is loading profile credentials and package configuration, secret env vars will be replaced with the string value of the environment variable. You cannot modify secrets using Jinja filters, including type-casting filters such as as_number or as_bool, or pass them as arguments into other Jinja macros.

Custom metadata

Changelog

Any env var named with the prefix DBT_ENV_CUSTOM_ENV_ will be included in dbt artifacts, in a metadata.env dictionary, with its prefix-stripped name as its key.

dbt Cloud Usage

If you are using dbt Cloud, you must adhere to the naming conventions for environment variables. Environment variables in dbt Cloud must be prefixed with DBT_ (including DBT_ENV_CUSTOM_ENV_ or DBT_ENV_SECRET_). Environment variables keys are uppercased and case sensitive. When referencing {{env_var('DBT_KEY')}} in your project's code, the key must match exactly the variable defined in dbt Cloud's UI.